Curso “Frugivoria e dispersão de sementes”, 2016


Frugivory and Seed Dispersal Course (Portuguese/Spanish) – 7-11 March 2016

Registrations: 4 Créditos – 01 a 12/02/2016.

@UNESP_PG_EcoBio with @mauro_galetti @pedro_jordano.

Part of the Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Biodiversidade. UNESP, Rio Claro.

Fotos: Marina Cortes, Guto Balieiro, Lindolfo Souto, Pedro Jordano.

Now the California gull, Larus californicus

This is the California gull, Larus californicus (Lawrence, 1854). It is subs. californicus.

California gull Larus californicus Ad 1

California gull Larus californicus 3cy 7

California gull Larus californicus 3cy 1

Here we see the white mirrors in P9 and P10, which are characteristic, and the white trailing edge to inner wing. This (both photos of same individual) is an adult (at least 4cy) with the winter plumage (hindneck has dense brown streaks). These first three photos were taken at Wilder Ranch State Park, Santa Cruz, along the coast line.

California gull Larus californicus 062

California gull Larus californicus 3cy  California gull Larus californicus 3cy

A detail of the wonderful head of this gull (same individual in these two photos, an ad). Note the dark iris, and the color pattern in the bill ring (black with red-orange tinted patch in the lower mandible). The bill is characteristically 4-colored: yellowish at the base, black ring, red-orange dot and ivory tip- this separates it from Ring-billed and Herring. The leg color is also characteristic (green-bluish) but apparently is very variable. I saw other ad birds with very yellow legs. These two photos were taken in San Lorenzo Park, Santa Cruz, CA.

California gull Larus californicus 3cy

This is a 3cy bird, finishing molt to 3rd winter. The bill ring is wholly black; there are no white patches on P feathers, nor white mirrors. The bill is longer than in Ring-billed and the head is more massive. The photo was taken at Moss Landing, Elkhorn Slough, CA.

California gull Larus californicus 2cy 6

This is a 1cy bird (juvenile molting into 1st winter plumage), with characteristic black-tipped bill with pale pink in the base. It has not yet started te molt of the scapulars, yet some grayish ones seem to be apparent- the median coverts look worn and faded, creating pale midwing-panel; so the bird is a bit delayed in its molt.

EXIF data:

e_Model NIKON D7000
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e_FlashExposureComp 0
e_ISOSpeedRating 100
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e_Depth 16
e_FocalLength 300
e_PixelHeight 3264
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e_Flash 16
e_CaptureDayOfMonth 13
e_CaptureMonthOfYear 10
e_CaptureYear 2013

Heermann’s gull in my recent trip to California

These are some shots of my recent trip to California, last October, where I had the opportunity to do a whale watching trip offshore Monterrey Bay, from Moss Landing. I’ll be posting more photos soon…

Heermann’s (Larus heermanni (Cassin, 1852) is one of my favorite gulls, with a beautiful plain grey plumage in the adult, contrasting with the white patches and the coral-red bill, and a smooth dark brown plumage of the immature birds.  They were common birds along the coast up to Santa Cruz, quite often in large flocks. The population size is estimated in ca. 150000 pairs.

Heermann s gull Larus heermanni1

The adult birds here seem to be starting with the winter plumage, with paler grey heads.

Heermann s gull Larus heermanni 1cy 12

This is a  typical juvenile bird facing its 1st winter. The head is very dark grey, with a creamy base of the bill.

Heermann s gull Larus heermanni Ad 2

I like the broad white trailing edge of the wing. It’s a very elegant gull in flight (well, as all the gulls). I’m getting a gull-addicted, even for the commonest species, which pose very nice identification problems when you try to get to the details of the plumage patterns and molt. Even the most common species (i.e., the yellow-legged here in S Spain) pose amazing identification challenges, especially in winter.

Heermann s gull Larus heermanni 2cyw with Humpback whale

And here, with the Humpback whale…

The photos were taken with the Nikon D7000, AF-S VR Zoom-Nikkor 70-300mm f/4.5-5.6G IF-ED, f8, 1/1000, ISO 400.

Long-distance dispersal events

The long and short of it

Back from the very interesting workshop organized in Madrid by Juanjo Robledo-Arnuncio. We focussed on long-distance dispersal events (LDD) and their importance to understand the potential responses to climate change. Changes in the environment will force adaptations or long-distance migration and range expansion in plants. Thus a key question is, are the LDD services provided by animal frugivores potentially allowing this environmental tracking.
We have been advancing a lot in understanding the local, stand-level patterns of dispersal and their consequences. Yet there are numerous conceptual and methodological challenges to understand migration among patches or fragments. LDD events > 500 km will be extremely difficult to assess in a robust way with current techniques, given the tremendous logistic challenge of sampling all the potential available pollen and seed sources. However, LDD events @100 km scale are probably affordable to estimate with a combination of mechanistic models (i.e., relying on high-precision satellite tracking of animal movement combined with physiological models) and genetic tools. Large scale sequencing and cheaper DNA analysis will help to genotype massive amounts of samples and allow the identification of rare immigrants, even when migration rates are low. Some lasting conceptual challenges include the estimation of 2D dispersal kernels that accommodate the complex reality of natural landscapes and the complexities of animal movement, which is quite often markedly directional and anisotropous.

The program of this interesting and thought-provoking workshop is here:


Long distance dispersal (LDD): perspectives and new directions

December 2nd, 2010

Sala Javier Palacios
Centro de Investigación Forestal (CIFOR)
Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA)
Ctra. de la Coruña km 7,5

8h45 – 9h00. Introduction (Juanjo Robledo-Arnuncio)

9h00 – 10h00 Keynote Speaker: Prof. Ran Nathan (Univ. Jerusalem)
A movement ecology approach to study LDD of plants

10h00 – 10h50. Prof. Pedro Jordano (EBD-CSIC)
Frugivores, seeds and genes: tracking the LDD events and their consequences

10h50 – 11h20. Coffee break

11h20 – 12h10Dr. Frederic Bartumeus (CEAB-CSIC)
LDD: Seed curves, Skewness and Anomalous Diffusion

12h10 – 13h00. Prof. Miguel Ángel de Zavala (Univ. Alcalá)
Species distribution models and long-range dispersal

13h00 – 14h30. Lunch at INIA

14h30 – 15h20. Dr. Juanjo Robledo-Arnuncio (CIFOR-INIA)
Genetic estimation of LDD among plant populations

15h20 – 17h00. Open Discussion (+ coffee)

17h00. End of mini-symposium


Gibraltar: “Arrived from a Symposium in Gibraltar: the CALPE Conference dedicated this year to the Pleistocene ecological changes and the evolution of bird migrations systems. It was an homage to the work of Reginald Moreau organized by Clive Finlayson and people at the Museum.”

(Via Weblog de Pedro.)

Frugivory and Seed Dispersal Meeting, Montpellier

The frugivory and seed dispersal meeting was organized this year in Montpellier, France. FSD2010 entitled “Frugivores and Seed Dispersal: Mechanisms and Consequences of a Key Interaction for Biodiversity”. It has been quite a success. We are preparing a ‘meeting report’ paper for Biology Letters, and the plenary talks will be published in a special issue of Acta Oecologica. I’ll update the info here…

Photo: K. Holbrook

Brazil field course

Field Course Frugivory and Seed Dispersal, Brazil

I’ve been in Brazil again for the 7th edition of our field course “Frugivoria e Dispersão de Sementes”, co-organized with Mauro Galetti, Marco A. Pizo, and Wesley Silva. This year we run the course in Intervales Park, since Cardoso was not available due to logistic problems. It was a great success, and projects run nicely. Besides, Intervales is an impressive area.